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Sociology

Resources for sociology coursework and research.

Citing Common Sources in ASA

In-text citations generally include the author's last name and the publication year. When quoting directly, page numbers should be included. 
Notes:

  • Citations usually include the author's last name and publication year in parenthesis after the last word in the sentence, but preceding the punctuation mark.
  • The author's last name does not need to be included in the parenthesis if it is mentioned in the preceding sentence.
  • Page numbers follow the publication year after a colon, with no space between the colon and the page number
  • If you are citing multiple sources in the same passage, the citations can be separated within the parenthesis by a semicolon (;)
Examples
Author's name in text:

The evidence of this phenomenon is proven in a study by Smith (1976). 

Author's name not in text:

The evidence of this phenomenon is proven by the observation of these three behaviors (Smith 1976).

Quotation:

Smith states that "the phenomenon and patterns observed is supported by the evidence produced" (1976:33). 

Two authors:

(Martin and Bailey 1988)

Three authors:

First time - (Carr, Smith, and Jones 1962)

Subsequent citations - (Carr et al. 1962) 

Four or more authors:

(Johnson et al. 1964)

General Format

Last name, First name. Year. Title. Publisher's City and State: Publisher's name.

Single Author Example

Desmond, Matthew. 2016. Evicted: Poverty and profit in the American city. New York: Crown Publishers. 

Multiple Author Example

Kotarba, Joseph A., and John M. Johnson. 2002. Postmodern Existential Sociology. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.  

Chapter in a Book Format

Last name, First name. Year. "Title of Article." Pp. (with page numbers) in Title, edited by Editor Initials, Editor Last name. Publisher's City and State: Publisher's name.

Riley, Matilda White. 1985. "Women, Men, and the Lengthening Life Course." Pp. 333-47 in Gender and the Life Course, edited by A.S. Rossi. New York: Aldine.

General Format

Last name, First name. Year. "Title." Journal Title volume number(issue number): page range. DOI (for online sources).

Single Author Example

Fyfe, James J. 1982. “Blind Justice: Police Shootings in Memphis.” The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 73(2):707-22.

Multiple Authors Examples

Coe, Deborah L., and James D. Davidson. 2011. “The Origins of Legacy Admissions: A Sociological Explanation.” Review of Religious Research 52(3):233-47.

Kalleberg, Arne L., Barbara F. Reskin, and Ken Hudson. 2000. “Bad Jobs in America: Standard and Nonstandard Employment Relations and Job Quality in the United States.” American Sociological Review 65(2):256-78.

Krahn, Jessica, Vera Caine, Jean Chaw-Kant, and Ameeta E. Singh. 2018. Housing interventions for homeless, pregnant/parenting women with addictions: a systemic review. Journal of Social Distress & the Homeless 27(1): 75-88.

Electronic Article (with DOI)

Persell, Caroline Hodes, Kathryn M. Pfeiffer, and Ali Syed. 2008. "How Sociological Leaders Teach: Some Key Principles." Teaching Sociology 36(2):108-24. doi:10.1177/0092055X0803600202.

Electronic Article (no DOI)

Schafer, Daniel W. and Fred L. Ramsey. 2003. "Teaching the Craft of Data Analysis." Journal of Statistics Education 11(1). Retrieved 7 November 2012 (https:www.amstat.org/publicaitons/jse/v11n1/schafer.html).

General Format

Last name, First name. Year. "Title," Publication, Month Date, page range.

Example

Ziff, Larzer. 1995. "The Other Lost Generation," Saturday Review, February 20, pp. 15-18.

Example (Author Unknown)

Lafayette Journal & Courier. 1998. Newspaper editorial. December 12, p. A-6.

General Format

Name of author or institution. Publication Year. "Title of page." Title of Website. Publication city: name of publisher. Retrieved date from (URL).

Note: Publication city and publisher name can be omitted if unknown.

Example

ASA. n.d. "Application and Sociological Practice." American Sociological Association. Retrieved January 8, 2021 (https://www.asanet.org/topics/application-and-sociological-practice).

Sociology Citation Styles Resources