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Citation Styles

A guide to some of the citation styles

CSE In-Text Citations

In CSE references are cited in one of three ways:

  • Name-Year (parenthetical)

    • The surname of the author(s) and the publication year of the referenced document are enclosed within parentheses. The reference list is arranged alphabetically by the author’s surname.
  • Citation-Sequence (superscript)

    • Sequential numbers, either in superscripts or on the line, correspond to entries on the reference list
  • Citation-Name (superscript)

    • Complete the list of references alphabetically by surname then assign them numbers based on their occurrence in this list. In-text citations corresponded to the reference list using numerical superscripts.  

Name-Year Citations in CSE

The following examples apply to the Name-Year System ONLY:

The author’s name and the year of publication are listed in parentheses at the end of the sentence:

Example: This claim was later refuted (Smith 2018).

If the author’s name is clearly mentioned in the text, it can be directly followed by the year of publication, in parentheses:

Example: Smith (2018) later disproved Jones' claim.

If both the author name and year are clearly mentioned in the text, there is no need to include a parenthetical reference:

Example: In 2008, Smith refuted his claim.

If you are citing a specific part of a document such as a direct quote, or a chart, include the page number

Example: “The results clearly contradict those published in 2010 by the Jones lab.” (Smith 2018, p. 36).

If the author of a document is an organization, use an abbreviated form of the organization name.

Example: The Jones lab was found to have contaminated results (FDA 2019).