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Citation Styles

A guide to some of the citation styles

APSA Style Manual

In-Text Citations

General Format:

(Last name year)

(Last name year, page numbers)

Examples:

(Arena 2014)

(Durant n.d.)

(Jentleson 2015, 12–14)

(Dodd and Oppenheimer 1977)

(Roberts, Smith, and Haptonstahl 2016)

Four or more authors: (Angel et al. 1986)

Multiple sources cited together: (Hochschild 2015; Jentleson 2015)

Common Reference Formats

General Format:

Full Name of author (Last, First). Year. Title of Book. Publication Location: Publisher. 

Examples:

Book, one author:

Hertsgaard, Mark. 1988. On Bended Knee: The Press and the Reagan Presidency. New York: Schocken Books.

Chapter from book:

Wilson, Graham K. 1996. “The Clinton Administration and Interest Groups.” In The Clinton Presidency: First Appraisals, ed. Colin Campbell and Bert A. Rockman. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House Publishers.

Books with multiple editions:

Davidson, Roger H., Walter J. Oleszek, Frances E. Lee, and Eric Schickler. 2016. Congress and Its Members, 14th edition. Washington, DC: CQ Press.

Multivolume Works

Hume, David. 1932. Volume II 1766–1776, Vol. 2 of The Letters of David Hume, ed. J. Y. T. Greig. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

General Format:

Full Name of Author (Last, First). Year. "Article Title." Journal Title volume # (issue number/name): page number(s).  

Examples:

Journal article, one author:

Aldrich, John H. 1980. “A Dynamic Model of Presidential Nomination Campaigns.” American Political Science Review 74 (3): 651–69.

Brzoska, Michael. 2003. “From Dumb to Smart? Recent Reforms of U.N. Sanctions.” Global Governance 9 (October-December): 519-535.

Journal article, multiple authors:

Herrmann, Richard K, and Jonathan W. Keller. 2004. “Beliefs, Values, and Strategic Choice: U.S. Leaders’ Decisions to Engage, Contain, and Use Force in an Era of Globalization.” Journal of Politics 66 (May): 557-80.

Book Reviews:

Chambers, Simone. 2018. “Against Democracy. By Jason Brennan.” Review of Against Democracy, Jason Brennan. Perspectives on Politics 16 (2): 503–5. doi: 10.1017/S153759271800066X.

Magazine article:

Prufer, Olaf. 1964. "The Hopewell Cult." Scientific American, December, 13-15. 

Daily Newspaper Article, no author:

Sacramento Bee. 2004. "Eyes on Sudan: Victims of Racist Repression need Help Now." 9 July.

Examples:

Legal Citation:

Marbury v. Madison. 1803. 5 U.S. (1 Cranch) 137; 2 L. Ed. 60.

Government Documents online: 

U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics. 2004. Crime and Safety in America’s Public Schools: Selected Findings from the School Survey on Crime and Safety. http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2004/2004370.pdf (July 23, 2005).